The Great Depression of 1929 (Mizo Version)

23rd of October. 1929 Nilaini zing a lo thlen chuan inrinlawkna hun awm hman miah lovin Company hrang hrangte Share hlutna chu namên lovin a tla hniam ta thut thut mai a. Sum peipungtute (investors) chuan mak ti lutuk hian New York Stock Exchange lam an hawi a, a hma lawk kum 5 chhûng zawng khan Share tin hlutna khan zual lam a pan zel kha a ni si a! Tunah lahchuan darkar khat huamchhûng ringawtah pawh thil la thleng ngai lo, 2 & half million share zet maite chu hralh an ni der mai! A tuk lehah phei chuan a hma zawng aiin share hlutna a tlahniam zual a!
Mipui sing chuangte chu NSE kawt tualah an rawn pungkhawmin, engvanga sum lama tlakchhiatna chu lo thleng tamai nge tih hriat chakin thler tinah an ṭhu tlim hmur mai a. Thawm thangva an hriat zawng chu miin a share hralh a duh a, mahse a leitu tur buyer a hmu zo lo tih zawng a ni si. Share hlutna lah chu $2, $4, $10 in a tlahniam zawih zawih mai si. Hlauhthawnna boruak ṭha lo a tleh ta chum chum a, NSE chhûng lama mangang authawm ri an hriat chu a chhan an hre ve si lo! A hnu ni 5 chhûng lekin America châkna bulpui, a Economy chu a tlachhe zui ta der mai a ni!

Chu thil thleng an hriatthiam meuh chuan mipui maktaduai tel tehmeuh maite chuan hnathawh tur an nei lova, mipui maktaduai tam takte chuan hna an chân a. Retheihna hmunah an cheng ta thut mai a ni. Chu tlakchhiatna chu Nguina (depression) in a rawn chhunzawm nghal ta bawk a. Khawvel chu history-a kan hriat angin The Great Depression Period-ah a cheng ta a ni. Engvangin nge he harsatna, tlakchhiatna hi lo thleng ta mai nge anih? A chhan bulpui hre tur chuan history lamah i han let vang vang teh ang aw.

Kum 1919 : US chu Indopui – I naah hnehtu niin he indona avang hian UK chuan a sum lei pai hmang kâng zo mah se, US Economy erawh chuan par a chhuang tak meuh meuh a ni. Mi tin hmalam hun chu a êng surh vek mai a, Industry tinreng maite chuan hma an sawn mawlh mawlh mai a ni ber. 1920 a lo thlen chuan US nitin nun chu a inthlakthleng ta thawk a. Kawlphetha hmangin khawtin tih ên an han ni a, Technology thar an siam chhuak mawlh mawlh bawk a. Mi hausa chauhin an neih phak thilte chu mipui vantlang nitin mamawh a rawn ni chho ta thuai a, “Hlawhtlinna Hun Duhawm” a rawn inherchhuak ta a ni ber e.

Credit and Installment : Fashion lamah mi an kal nasa a, nawmchenna kawngah tumah an insum lo! Inchhûngkhur bungrua, mahni incheina, mihring nawmsakna, in leh lo thlengin a ba (credit) leh installment hmangin mipui ten an lei ta mawlh mawlh a. Ṭhenawmnu neih ang neih loh a rem lova, ṭhenawmpa car ang neih loh a mawi lo. Mi tin maite chuan hausak lehzual châkna an rawn nei lian tual tual a, Risk an la huai ta êm êm mai a ni.

Liberty Bond : US chuan indopui hunlai khan a pawisa mamawh phuhruk nân Liberty Bond a hralh chhuakin mipuite hnenah a pung awma US in pawisa a pukna a ni a. Liberty Bondchu a tirah hmuhlet (return) a ṭhat êm avangin mi tin maite chu Investor (sum peipungtu) nih an duhin Liberty Bond lei an intihhmuh ta chiam chiam mai a. Mipuite chu Security (inven lawkna) ṭha tak neiah ngaiin lungmuang takin nuam an tawl ani ber.

Wall Street : Sum peipunna a nasat takah chuan Wall Street (Investment Bankers leh Brokers awmna) chuan hlawkna chan vetumin hma a rawn la ta! Wall Street hi US Elite Investment Bankers kan tih maite awmna niin anmahni leh anmahni indawrin mipui nawlpui tân an zinga sumdawnna khawih ve an remti ngai ṭhin lo. An zing mi pakhat, Charles Mitchell, President of City Bank chuan Financial World hmelhmang a rawn thlak danglam ta vek mai a ni.

Share & Stock : Company stock hi a unit-a hralh a ni a, chu unitchu share kan tih hi a ni ta a ni. Stock chuan company hrang hranga neitu nihna certificate a entir a. Share erawh chuan company pakhat bil bika neitu nihna certificate a entir tihna anih chu. Ka stock i lei duh em i han tih khan company hrang hranga i stock i zawrhna a ni a. Ka IBM share hi leichhawng ta che i tihin IBM a neitu nihna i neih i sawina a ni.

Ani chuan mipuite hnenah Liberty Bond ang chiah hian Corporate Bonds, Common Stock & Share zawrh ila, tichuan sum leh pai nasa tak kan lakluh belh thei dawn a ni tiin kalphung thar a rawn duang ta a. Hausak châka tuihal American mipuite chuan Wall Street chhûnga inkulh Lending/Investment Bank hrang hrangte Stock leh Share lei an intihhmuh ta chiam chiam a, Broker kan tihho hmangin heng Bank te hian mipui an dawr a, sum leh pai a lêng ta chiam chiam mai a ni.Technology : Mipui nawlpui, kawtthlera cheng thlengin sum an peipung ta a. chumi piah lamah Telegraphing Ticketing Machine an tih mai hmangin Wall Street lama share leh stock pun leh tlakhniamna chu hmun kilkhawr ber berah pawh minute 5 hnu lek lekah a hriat ve theih ta zung zung a. Hei hian nasa takin mipuiteah hna thawkin awlsam takin sum peipunna lamah chaktakin an kal ta mawlh mawlh mai a ni.

Oil Company, Shipping, Film Industry, Luxury, Commodity Distributor, Bank etc lian tham zawng zawngah mipui ten share neih ve an duh ta a. 1920 laihawl velah chuan American mipui maktaduai thum chuangte chu he sumdawnnaah hian an inhnamhnawih hman tawh a ni.

I hriatthiam zual theih nân : Company a a invest-na share pakhat chu 7% in a tukin khan a pung a, $ 7000 ka help der mai. Hetiang tak hian a hunlai khan ahlawk tlat avangin mi tih ang engah an tih loh vang? Chhiahpuam hunlai nen khan mihring mizia hi ngaihtuahin chhuidawn thiam mai rawh.

Buying on margin : Mipuite chuan nasa zawka share leh stock leian duh tak zelah chuan share lei dan thar a lo chhuak ta a, chu chu buying on margin hi a lo ni ta a ni. Share leitu chuan share man zawng zawng kha pe tlak nghal vek lovin, nakinah a broker kaltlangin a share man bat chu muangchangin a pe tla dawn a ni.

He buying on margin hman hi an han intihhmuh ta tak tak a,mi tin maite chuan share te chu buying on margin hmangin an lei ta sup sup mai a ni. A awmzia ber chu ba nei chunga thil lei tihna a ni. 1920 tawp lamah chuan NSE a share leh stock lei zawng zawng 100-a 90 chu he buying on margin hmanga lei an ni ta mai reng a ni.

A awmze dang : $ 100 stock kha $ 25 lekin i lei thei ang a, Brokerage Firm i hmante khan a bang zawng kha chu an lo peksak mai dawn che a ni. Broker hnenah khan ba i nei tihna a loni. Khang hunlai khan kha $ 25 lek kha $ 250-300 chuangin a lo pungin hlawkna tel theih khawpin America Economy kha a ṭhangduang tlat zuk nia!

Market ṭhangduang : Kum 1928 khan thla 12 chhûng lekin NSE kha 50% zetin zuk ṭhanglian hman a! Share Demand a pung thur thur a, mipuite (investor) tam leh zualin he sumdawnna puam lutukah hian tel ve an duh a, share leina tur sum an puk sup sup mai a ni. Chuti tak maia pawisa puam vangchuan US Economy lah a ṭhangduang tulh tulh a, he sumdawnnaah hian US sawrkar chu inrawlh duh lovin kut kuangkuah chungin a ṭhu ta tlat mai bawk a.

Insider Trading : Mahni ṭanghma hai chunga Stock Exchange chungchanga thuruk hriatna nei chunga hlawkna mahni tâna insiam hi insider trading chu a ni. Wall Street Bankers zingah Market Manipulation (mahni duh zawng zawnga market kalphung thunun) tih ching an lo chhuak ta a. Thuruk an hriat lawk angin stock an lei ngheng a, chu chu rang takin an hralh a, hlawkna nasa tak nen an hausa thur thur ṭhin.

Wall Street a mi thiltithei ber chu JP Morgan hotu Thomas Lamont-a niin Wall Street sumdawnnaah hian sawrkar a inrawlh loh avangin Lamont-a thu leh hla chu thlak danglam theih loh, thir anga khauh a ni tawp mai a. Insider Dealings (Wall street chhûnga mahni hlawkna uma chetna) a tuallêng tih Investor (mipui) tam takin an hre ta miah lo! Wall Street chupawisa thapna hmun lianpui mai, mithiam bik tlemtein an thununna hmun a lo ni ta a ni. Mipui ten an life savings atâna an sumdawnna an lo khehpuam kawngah hian an thiltih nghawng len turzia hi an hre lova ni!

No Regulations : Coolidge a President lai khan Wall Street sumdawnna chet vel danah hian dan a lekkawh ngam lo i ti mai ang. Hoover-a a rawn President khan he chetsual palh pawh dawn chuang lova sumdawnna chungchang hi hrilhhriat ni mah se, wall street a mi tlemte thuneihna ropui tak mai chu a enfiah ngam ta chuang bik lo. President-a lakluh a nih hnu lawk hian Banker, mite zah tak Paul Warburg-a chuan hetianga free taka thunun lohva kan kal zel chuan Depression kan hmachhawn ang a, rampum kan tlachhe dawn a ni tia warning a sawi pawh a ngaithla duh ta lova ni.

Sumdawn lehzualna : Chutih a hnekin May-Sept 1929 chhûng lek khan company thar diai 60 te chu NSE-ah in register tharin 100 million share chuang Share Market-ah lei theihin a la phochhuak ta deuh deuh zawk a ni. Market lama mithiam ṭhenkhat chuan an sumdawnna chu a over-heat ṭan niin an sawi ta a. Rang taka US market chu tuihu-a kal ral mai thei niin an ngai ta a ni. Chuti chung chuan President Hoover-a chuan nakin lawkah US Market chu a ṭha leh mai ang tiin a lung a la muang si!

A puak darh ta : Ni nga hnu lawkah chuan Stock Market chu a tlusawp ta nuaih mai a ni! Tuman, engvanga 23rd Oct, 1929 Nilaini an hman tawp lama mi zawng zawng ten mahni inrintawkna leh stock Market rin ngamna hloh ta thut nge an nih tih tun thlengin an la hre lo! Tuma hmuhlawk rual lohvin Automobile (motor siamtu) stock hlutna chu vawilehkhatah a tlahniam ta thut a, chuvang chuan he Automobile Company share maktaduai chuang chu rang takin hlutna tlem zawka hralh a ni ta mai a!
A tuk lehah chuan The Great Crash of 1929 an tih chu a inṭan ta tak tak a ni. NSE stock hlutna chu a tlahniam ta zawih zawih a, mipui pawh an mangangin an hlauthawng ta ngawih ngawih a. 24th Oct 1929 ni hian Winston churchill-a pawhin sum tam tham tak peipun duhin share a lo lei ve ṭeuh a, NSE hi tlawh tumin hemi ni hian a phusa nasa ve mai a lo ni a! Churchill-a hian hausakna tham lawih sum a chan zui ve ta bawk a ni. Hemi ni ringawt hian 12.9 million share hralh a ni!

Hmalakna : Stock a tlakhniam zut zut takah leh market-ah mipuiin rinna an nghah ngam loh chuan a hotu lawk zualin hmaan lak a, mipuite an thlamuan a ngai ṭhin. National City Bank hotu Charles Mitchell-a chu JP Morgan office-ah koh a ni a, ani rual hian NSE Vice-President Richard Whitney leh Bankers hausa zualte chu Chairman Thomas Lamont-a hovin an meeting ta mup mup mai a.Thutlukna : $ 250 million hmanga Stock Market puih an remti tlang ta a. Stock ṭhenkhat hlutna itipung tura puih ngai bikah chuan he pawisa hi an chhunglut ta a. A takin hna a thawk ta tlat! Lungmuang takin buaina a reh ta an ti ta mai reng a, a teuh lo lutuk mai a lo ni! A chhipah a puak ek ek chauh a lo la ni a, a taksa pumpui a puak dawn chauh a lo la ni.

28th Oct, Monday : Ṭhawhtan tuk a lo thleng a, khita kan sawi tawh, stock lei nâna buying on margin, ba chunga stock lei kha a sawhkhawk a rawn lang ta a ni. Ba chunga stock i lei miau chuan risk a sang lo thei lova, chuvang chuan Collateral Damages (a huhova chhiatna) laka inven nân pawisa tam tak an thawh a ngai ta! $ 25 hmanga 100 share leitu khan, $ 25 hlutna kha a tlakhniam tak thutah chuan a batna, Broker khan share leitu hnenah khan $ 75 a va dil ta lo thei lova ni.

Mipui tam takte chu an ba rul tura hrilh an ni ta! Anih loh chuan an stock te kha an broker te hian an hralhsak ang a, an sum hmuh ang ang chu an ba aiah an nei mai dawn a ni. “Chawhnu dar khat hma ngei hian $ 600 kengin kan office-ah lo kal ang che. He pawisa hi chawhnu dar 1 thlenga kan dawng lo a nih chuan i account-a i security zawng zawng hi hralh vek a ni ang” tih notice an dawng ta mawlh mawlh mai a. Mahse, chuti maiin chuti zat pawisa an nei ta si lova ni.

$ 25 billion : Market a han tlakchhiat a, share an han hralh tlawm tak tak khan mipui sum hlutna hmuh leh tawh ngai lohva bo hlen zat chu $ 25 billion zet a tling ta a ni.

Depression rapthlak : Mahni office chhawng 30 na aṭanga zuangthla a, mahni inthat te, lo inawkhlum leh mahni nunna lakchiah kawng awma hriatna vanga mahni inthat tamzia kha sawisen a ni lo! Share leina za-a 90 lai kha buying on margin hmanga lei a nih kha kan la hria ang a. Mipui zawng zawngin ba rulhsen loh an nei deuh vek tihna a ni ta ber a! Rilru hah luatna chuan Nguina a rawn thlen ta chiah reng a ni.

A nghawng : Kum 1931 a lo thlen meuh chuan Bank 2000 chuang an tluchhia a, bank-a pawisa lo khawltu mipui pawh an tlachhe ta nghal tihna a ni. Mipuiin an inluah man an pe thei lova, hnawhchhuah an tawk a. Hna zawng zawng a bo zo ta bawk a! Mi maktaduai 13-15 chuangin hnathawh tur an nei lo. Indopui – II na thleng khan US hian harsatna a tawk zui ta a ni.

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