THE DOOLITTLE RAID

  • Kum 1942 April ni 18 zingkar ruah tla deuh seng seng hnuaiah chuan Lieutenant Colonel Jimmy Doolittle chuan a B-25 medium bomber khawl pahnih chu han herh vung hlurh hlurh pah chuan USS Hornet tumkawng (flight deck) huh hlup mai chu a han thlir phei a, Pacific tuipui vawt ruih mai fawn hlup hlup nena an inkarah chuan feet 467 chiah a tla a.
    Signal officer Lieutenant Edgar Osborne chu a kutzungpui a han tihpir khum zauh a. Chu thlawhna ke kam dinna lawng sipaite’n an hnuh sawn mek lai chuan Osborne chuan a flag tial ken chu a han vaivir pawp pawp a. Chu chu Doolittle atan a chak thei ang bera tlan chhuak tura hriattirna a ni.
    A bomber ‘crew’-te hnenah chuan,
    “Kan inring kim maw?”
    “Inring thap e, Colonel.”
    Zing dar 8:20 chiah a ni a.
    Signal officer-in a flag a vai chhuk rual chuan a brake a han thlah ta a le! Chu bomber chu tumtualah chuan a lim thla ta pur pur mai a. Feet 50, 100, 200…
    Tumtual sir atangin pakhat chuan, “A thlawk kang zo dawn lo tawp mai.” a lo ti chûl a.
    Thlawhna chu tumtual tawp a thlen chuan pil ta thut hian a lang a, thlawk kâng zo lovin a tlan liam ta mai em ni… Lt. Charles McClure chuan, “Doolittle kan chân ta, a tel lova kan chet a ngai dawn ta,” a lo ti rilru hman a.
    Chutah bomber chu rawn invawrh kang lehin van boruak paw chûkah chuan a thlawk chho ta vung vung a.
    Tumtual vel leh control tower-a lawng sipaiho chu lawmin an hawhaw hluah hluah mai. Lt. Thomas White sawi dan takah, ‘An thawm chu Tokyo atang pawha hriat phaka mawi a ni.’

    Doolittle chu US Army bomber 15 dangte chuan minute 4 dan zela rawn zui vein an zavai chuan hlawhtling takin an thlawk chhuak thei ta vek a.
    A chanchin reh ngai tawh lo tur, Tokyo leh Japan khawpui dang chhu tura thapui thawh vawi khatna chu a thleng dawn ta.

    Kum 1942 April ni 18, Inrinni-a USA thlawhnate’n Tokyo bakah Honshu thliarkara hmun engemawzat an run kha Doolittle Raid, Tokyo Raid an tih bawk chu a ni a, Indopui pahnihnaa Japan ramin an inchhunglum ngeia van boruak atanga chhipthlak an tawhna hmasa ber a ni. He beihna hian Japan ram chu America thlawhnate laka a him lohzia a tihlan bakah Japan-in kum 1941, December ni 7-a US indo lawng chawlhna hmunpui (naval base), Pearl Harbour a beih thungrulhna angah ngaih a niin, America mite rilru hnual chawk tho tha lehtu hmanraw pawimawh tak a ni a. An run dan tur ruahmantu leh hmahruaitu chu United States Army Air Forces Lieutenant Colonel, James “Jimmy” Doolittle a ni.
    Pacific Ocean khawthlang lam (chu chu Japan chhak lam dep tihna) atangin US Navy aircraft carrier USS Hornet atangin B-25B Mitchell bomber sawm leh paruk, mi panga theuh phur (5-man crew: pilot, co-pilot, navigator, bombardier, flight engineer/gunner) chu fighter escort tel lovin tirh chhuah an ni a. An thlawh chhuahna lawngah hian let leh tura beisei an ni lo; thlawhna lian bomber tana tum theihna turin an lawng kha an len tawk loh mai bakah lawng rual tan an lo kir nghaka lo awm kha a hlauhawm lutuk a ni. An hna chu Japan rama hmun pawimawhte bomb a, chumi zawhah khawthlang lam pana thlawk tlang zela China rama tumna zawn tur a ni. Heng zinga thlawhna sawm leh panga chuan China an thleng a, mahse ṭum pangngaia ṭum lovin an tla vek a, pakhat chu hmar lam hretah thlawkin Russia rama Vladivostok bulah a tum a. Thlawhna atanga an zuan thlakna leh an ṭum sualna lamah mi pathum an thi a ni.

    A tobul:
    Kum 1941, December ni 21 khan US President Franklin D. Roosevelt chuan sipai hotu lawk, Joint Chiefs of Staff-te nena White House-a an inkawmnaah, Pearl Harbour tawrhna avanga America mipuite rilru chiai thawi dama chawk tho leh turin a rang thei ang bera Japan bomb a duh thu a lo sawi daih tawh a.
    Japan va run an duh chhan hi thil pahnih a awm a: Indopui tan tir lamah Japan khan ram a la duai duai a, Pacific tuipuia thliarkar pawimawh leh Europe ram thenkhat kuta awm Asia chhimchhak ramte an chhuhsak zo titih kha a ni a. USA inrin loh laiin an lawng sipai hmunpui Hawaii thliarkara awm, Pearl Harbour an suasamsak chiam bawk. Japan kha a vawk lal len titih hman a ni. An ram chhung ngeia va beih let khan an rilru a tichi-ai ang a, an mipuite’n an ram hruaitute an rinna pawh an hloh phah ve ngei an beisei a ni. Chu ai maha pawimawh chu America mipuite rilru hnual tawh chawh phur leh chu a ni bawk.
    Amaherawhchu, Japan khan an ram chhung atanga mel tam taka hlaah ram lain thla an zar pharh duai mai si a, America thlawhnate khan khawmual atanga thlawk chhuaka Japan ram va beih phakna khawpa hnaiah tanhmun an nei lo. Kawng awmchhun chu aircraft carrier behchhana va beih a ni mai.
    Chu chu thil namai lo tak a ni thung. Pacific tuipui zau takah chuan thliarkar engemaw zata Japan sipaiho inkulhna te, hmelma indo lawng leh tuihnuai lawng veivak reng te leh hmelma thlawhna, bomber leh fighter bakah enthlatu thlawhna thlawk vel reng karah chuan an hmuh loha Japan ram bomb phakna khawpa hnaiah an tawlh luh a ngai dawn a. America khan khatih lai khan aircraft carrier panga chiah a nei a, chu chu Japan neih zatve lek a ni. Chung zinga pahnih chu he ‘mission’ atan hian an thawk chhuak ta kha a ni a, tawhsual an tawh vaih chuan US navy tan inben kân leh ngaihna awm lo khawpa pawi thei a ni.

    Hemi an va beih dan tur ngaihtuah chhuak hmasatu tak chu tuihnuai lawng beih letna lam pawla Assistant Chief of Staff, Navy Captain Francis Low a ni a. Khatih lai khan aircraft carrier atangin bomber thlawh chhuahtir a ni ngai lo va, hepa rawtna ang hian indo hma atanga military test pilot lo ni tawh, civil thlawhna pawh lo khalh tawh thin leh thlawhna lama engineer lar tak Doolittle-a chuan ruahmanna siamin amah ngei chuan a kaihruai ta a ni.

    Inpuahchahna:
    He raldona atan hian km 4,400-a hla thlawk thei leh bomb pound sanghnih (910kg) zeta rit phur thei thlawhna mamawh a ni a. A thei tur awm thlawhna chi thum an zir chian hnuah B-25B Mitchell medium bomber chu hman tlak tur nia hriat a ni a. An thlan ber pawh hi a thlawh hlat theih chin a la tawk loh cheu avangin khawltui (fuel) tam tak a pai belh theih nan nasa taka tihdanglam a ni a. Ruahmanna pawm fel a nih veleh B-25 bomber hmang hmasa ber leh chulnel ber, 17th Bomb Group chu he ral beihna atana buatsaih nghal an ni a. Hemi group-a ‘air crew’ te chu “hna hlauhawm tawpkhawk, eng nge a nih chiah hriat si loh” atana pen chhuak tura ngen an ni ta a ni.
    A tira ruahman dan chuan thlawhna sawmhnih kal tura tih a ni a, he group-a B-25B bomber sawmhnih pali chu Minneapolis-a Mid-Continent Airlines hmunah a tul anga cheibawl turin tirh a ni a. Chutah chuan bomb rit tak thui tak phur thei turin a silai bunna (gun turret) leh radio set te hlih then a ni a, fuel tank dah belh teuh a ni a, bomb thlak tinzawnna (Norden bomb sight) thlawnin a aiah tualchher an vuah a, a mawng lamah silai dawt lem an vuah bawk a. Bomber pahnih chuan an chet dan thla lakna turin camera an pai bawk a.

    Kum 1942, March ni 1 atang chuan he hna atana thlan chhuahte chuan Eglin Field, Florida-ah chuan ngawrh lutukin chawlhkar thum chhung chu lawng atanga thlawh chhuah dan te, hniam tak leh zana thlawh dan te, hniam tak atanga bomb thlak dan leh tuipui chunga kawng zawn dan te an zir ta tluk tluk mai a ni.

    A tawi zawngin sawi tawh mai ila, April ni 1 a lo thlen chuan thlawhna chhia te a awm avang leh ruahmanna thlak danglam avang tein mi panga theuh chuanna bomber sawm leh paruk chu anmahni enkawltu (maintenance personnel) officer 71 leh sipai lumum 130 te nen, lawng sipai thlawhna hmunpui (naval air station) Alameda hmunah chuan aircraft carrier USS Hornet-ah an hlangkai ta hlawm a. Thlawhnate chuan a bik taka duan, kg 225-a rit bomb pali theuh an phur a, chung zinga pathum chu bomb puak na chi niin pakhat chu bomb alh chi (incendiaries) tam tak phuar khawm, thlak hnua tla darh chiam tura duan a ni. Bomb panga-ah chuan indo hmaa Japan sorkarin US sipaite hnena ‘inthianthatna medal’ a lo pek tawh chu an tawn bet bawk a. Tin, sawi tawh angin thlawhna tizangkhai turin an ralthuam paih then a ni a, bomber tin hian a chung lamah machine gun pahnih leh a hma lamah pakhat theuh chauh an pai a ni.

    An che chhuak ta:
    April ni 2 zing dar 8:48 ah chuan USS Hornet chu bomber rual phur ther fur chungin a thuihruai lawngrual, Task Force-18 nen chuan San Francisco Bay atang chuan an kal chhuak ta a. Golden Gate Bridge sen vût mai hnuaia an tawlh chhuah ruau ruau lai chuan bomber crew-te chuan chu lei hmingthang tak chu hmu leh turah an inngai kher lo ang. A tuk chhunah chuan bomber la cheibawl zawh hman loh thenkhat atana hmanrua engemawzat chu Blimp (balloon thlawkthei-zeppelin ang chi) hmangin Hornet-ah chuan thlak a ni a, kal pahin an cheibawl pah zel a ni. Ni engemawzat hnuah Task Force-16, aircraft carrier USS Enterprise leh a thuhruaite nen an infin a, Hornet lawnga fighter-te hi Bomber rual tana hmun kiana hanger-a an dah bo vek avangin Enterprise-a fighter leh enthlatu thlawhnate chuan an zavaia tan ral laka venhim hna chu an thawk ta a ni. Ral laka an him nan inbiakpawhna radio pawh hmang ngam lovin an kal ta zel a. April ni 17 chawhnu tlang herah chuan oil phur lawng pahnihte chuan raldo lawngte chu an khawltui an thun khahsak hnuin, lawng kal muang deuh dang Destroyer-te nen chuan khawchhak lam panin an let ta hlawm a; carrier pahnih leh cruiser lawngte chuan chak takin an tum ram, Japan hnaih tuipui lam chu an pan thla ta muah muah mai a ni.

    Japan run vawi khatna chu:
    April ni 18 zing dar 7:38 a lo ri a, Japan ram atanga km 1,200 laia hlaa an la awm lai chuan Japan enthlatu lawng, No. 23 Nitto Maru chuan a rawn phawk ta hlauh mai le. Lawng rual zinga mi USS Nashville chuan chu lawng chu kap pil mah se hmelmate’n an awm tih an hre tawh miau a, an dinhmun chu a derthawng zo ta a ni. Doolittle leh Hornet Captain Marc Mitscher te chuan bomber rual thawn chhuah nghal rum rum mai chu an titlu ta chuk chuk a – chu chu an tum aia darkar sawma hma leh km 310 zeta hlaah a ni. Hornet tumkawng (flight deck) chu bomber han thlawh chhuahna atan chuan a tawi tek tawk hle mai a, a hmahruaitu Doolittle tan chuan thlawh chhuahna tur tlan kawng metre 142 chiaha thui a awm a. Pilot zinga tumah chu aircraft carrier tak tak atangin an la thlawk chhuak ngai miah lo chungin, zing dar 8:20 leh 9:19 inkar chhungin him takin bomber sawm leh paruk chu an thlawk chhuak thei vek a ni.

    B-25 rualte chu a tirah chuan pali leh pahnih te tea inkawpin an thlawk phawt a, chutah hmelma tana hmuh harsa turin a mal te tein tuipui chung hniam thei ang berah Japan ram chu an pan thla ta a ni. An thlawh chhuah atanga darkar ruk a ral hnu, Tokyo sana-a chhun lai takah chuan Japan ram chung zawn an thleng ta a, feet 1500 (460m)-a sangah lawn chhovin an ‘target’ tura ruat: Tokyo-ah sipai hmun leh thilsiamna hmun sawm, Yokohama-ah hmun hnih, Yokosuka, Nagoya, Kobe leh Osaka-ah hmun khat theuh chu an bitum ta tliar tliar a. Bomber thenkhat chuan thlawhna kahna silai leh hmelma fighter an hmachhawn na a, pakhat mah kahthlak an ni lo. Bomber pakhat chu an kap fuh a, a chhe nasa lo a; pakhat chu an silai a chhiat ahnu hmanah fighter-in a rawn beih avangin an target an thlen hmain an bomb phurh an paih ta ngawt a. Bomber rual silaipute chuan hmelma fighter pathum an kapthla thung a. Bomb an thlak mai bakah hian sipai hmunte chu silaiin an hawl nasa hle bawk a ni. An hnung lam atanga fighter ten an rawn beih miah loh danah bomber mawng lama silai lem an vuah khan an tihder fuh hle niin an inngai.

    An chanpual theuh an beih zawh hnu chuan chhimthlang lam panin East China Sea thlawh kanin China khawchhak tuipuikam lam an pan hlawm a. Zhejiang province chhunga tumhmun engemawzat te chu signal lo pe-a lo tumtir tur leh, an thlawhna tui an thun khah hnuah Chongqing lam pan zel tura ngaih an ni a. Mahse heng tumhmunte hi engmah hriattir an lo ni hauh lo mai a, an ruahmanna thuruk a put chhuah an hlauh vang zawka hrilh loh an ni awm e. Captain Edward J. York khalh bomber chu a tui a kang takngial dawn avangin tuipuia tlak ai chuan tiin a hnai zawk Soviet Union lam a pan ta thung a.
    Ral runtute hian China pana an thlawhna kawngah hian harsatna an tawk nasa ta hle mai. Khua a thim lek lek tawh a, thlawhnate chu a tui a kang tep bakah khaw awmdan a dik lo ta zel bawk a. An ral beihna atanga an thlawk tlang kha darkar sarih chhung zet an ground speed 46km/h zeta belhtu ‘tail wind’-in pui lo phei se chu tuman China khawmual an thleng zo lo vang. Thlawhna khalhtute chuan an tum ram tak an thleng zo dawn lo tih an hriat tak hnu chuan duhthlan tur pahnih chiah an nei: China ram chung zawn thlen huna zuan thlak emaw, vaukam thlen ruala a rem dan dana pâwngṭum (crash land) pawp emaw a ni mai. Thlawhna sawmpangate chuan darkar sawmpathum zet an thlawh hnuin China tuipui kam chu an thleng thei ta hram a ni.
    Soviet Union lama thlawk kha Vladivostok piah mel 40-a hlaah a va ṭum a, an lo man nghal a. He ‘mission’ hi B-25B Mitchell medium bomber ten ral beia an thlawh hlat ber tum a ni a, chawh rualin nautical mile 2,250 (4,170 km) thlawk ang an ni.

    A hnu lam zel:
    Soviet kuta tlu lut ta York leh a hote chu tha taka enkawl an ni na a, tha te tea an rama an kir chu a rem tlat lo. Khatih lai khan Soviet sorkar chuan Japan sorkar lakah indonaa ṭan lam bik nei lo turin thu a lo thlung tlat mai a, Japan hmelma sipaite chhuah zalen kha a thei tlat lo a ni. A hnu deuhah Iran ramri hnaih lama dah an nih laiin a ruka sumdawngte tanpuinain ramri kanin an put ru thei ta a. Tun hnua Soviet lehkha pawimawh thenkhat tlangzarh a nih takah khan khami tuma an tlan chhuah dan zawng zawng kha a ruka NKVD (Soviet spy pawl) ruahmansak vek a lo ni tih hriat a ni. A tira ruahmanna hmasaah chuan hemi ṭuma bomber thawk chhuakte hi Soviet ram, Japan ram hnaiha ṭumtir phawt a, heta tanga va run tura beisei an ni a. Mahse, he Soviet thuthlung lo ziah tawh avang bawk hian USA chu an pui ngam ta lo a ni.

    An hruaitupa ber Doolittle leh a hote pawh midang ang bawkin thlawhna atangin an zuangthla a. China rawlral sipai leh civil mi bakah missionary hna thawka awm American, John Birch te chuan an lo tanpui a. Doolittle-a ngaihdan chuan thlawhna zawng zawng an hloh ta vek mai si a, hlawhchham let derah a inngai a, ‘court martial’ hmachhawn ngei turah a indah a ni.

    China thlawk thleng thei bomber ‘crew’ tam zawk chu China sipai leh civil mite puihnain hmun him an thleng deuh vek a. Pakhat chu a zuan thlakna lamah chesualin a thi a. Thlawhna pahnih ‘crew’, mi sawm chu chin hriat lohin an awm a; a hnu rei fe, August thlaah Shanghai-ah Japan kutah mi pariat chu an tang tih hriat a ni. An zinga pahnih chu tuipuia an tumnaah an tla hlum a lo ni a. Japan chuan an mitangte chungthu chu relin an zinga pathum chu civil mi thata puhin an kaphlum a. Midang chu hrehawm tak leh chaw kawpuar pe lova tantirin an zinga pakhat chu tan inah a thi a, midang zawng chu kum 1945 August thlaah American sipaiten an chhanchhuak ta a ni.

    Bomber an chan vek avang leh an thil bomb chhiat a ningnel em avangin Doolittle chu hlawhchhamah inngai mah se an hnathawh chu American mipuite rilrua a tlak nat em vangin chawimawi an hlawh ta zawk a. Doolittle chu Medal of Honour an pek bakah Colonel rank bawh kanin Brigadier General-ah kaisantir a ni a; a hote mi sawmriat chu an vaiin Distinguished Flying Cross pek vek an nih bakah thi leh hliam tuarte chu Purple Heart pek an ni bawk. An zinga pahnih chu thlawhna danga an thiante Japan sipai laka an him theih nana an puih avangin Silver Star pek an bawk a. An zavai hian China sorkar chuan chawimawina a hlan vek bawk a ni.

    Heta dam khawchhuakte hi indona hmun hrang hrangah thlawk zui zelin engemawzat chu ral donaah an thi leh hlawm a ni.

    Phuba lakna (Zhejiang-Jiangxi Campaign):
    Khatia run an tawh takah khan Japan sipaite chuan China ram chhak lam bial chu an ram beihna tanhmun atan hman a nih lohna turin leh American sipai lo tanpuitute hrem turin beihpui rapthlak tak an nei zui nghal a. Henglai biala thlawhna tumhmun zawng zawng chu an tichhe vek a. American-ho lo tanpuitu nia an rinhlelh leh American thil hrim hrim lo kawl chu an nghaisain an that hmiah hmiah mai a. Hmeichhe tam tak pawngsualin nunau chenin an suat a. He beihpui thlaknaah hian China mi 2,50,000 vel an tihlum niin chhut a ni.

    A hlawhtlinna:
    Target pui deuh deuh pariat leh tenau deuh pahnih beih a ni a. Sawi tham deuhte chu Tokyo-ah oil dah khawmna, thir siamna hmunpui leh kawlphetha siam chhuahna hmun engemaw zat an bei a. Yokosuka-ah chuan aircraft carrier siam lai Ryūhō, an siam zawh tep tawh chu an deng fuh a, an siam zawh har phah hle a. An target bakah pawh hian sikul paruk leh sipai damdawi in pakhat an deng fuh bawk.

    A hnu lama Boeing B-29 Superfortress bomber hmanga Japan an den nghek nghek nena khaikhin chuan Dolittle raid hian pawi a khawih nep kher mai, an tihchhiat chhunte pawh rang taka siam that leh deuh vek a ni.
    Amaherawhchu, an hnathawh hian nghawng a nei thui hle thung. An beisei ang ngeiin American mipuite rilru hnual tawh chu he chanchin bengverh tak avang hian an lo phur thar leh ta a. Hmelma beihna lakah an ram chu a him lo tih an hriat tak avangin Japan ralrel dan chu a nghawng danglam nghal bawk a. Pacific tuipui lailia American Navy base, Midway Island chu hmelma tan an ram runna tanhmun remchang tak ni ngeia an hriat avangin Japan navy chuan lak ngei tumin an run ta rum rum mai reng a. He inbeihna ropui rapthlak tak, Battle of Midway hi Pacific indonaa ki pawimawh tak a ni a, Japan indo lawngte nasa taka hneha an awm kha Japan sorkar tlawmna hmahruaitu a lo ni ta a ni.

    “It was hoped that the damage done would be both material and psychological. Material damage was to be the destruction of specific targets with ensuing confusion and retardation of production. The psychological results, it was hoped, would be the recalling of combat equipment from other theaters for home defense thus effecting relief in those theaters, the development of a fear complex in Japan, improved relationships with our Allies, and a favorable reaction on the American people.” —General James H. Doolittle, 9 July 1942.

    Inhmuh khawm lehna:
    Kum 1940 chho tawp lam atanga 2013 thleng khan ‘Doolittle Raiders’-te kha kum tin an inhmu khawm thin a. Chumi hunah chuan urhsun taka hun hman dan an nei a: A kal khawmte chuan ‘roll call’ neiin a hma kuma an thian thi tate pualin zu no an dawm thin a ni. ‘Raider’ sawmriatte hminga a hranpa ngata tangkaraw no kermawi chu an hmang thin a, no-ah chuan an hming chu a dik zawng leh a letling zawnga ker vek a ni. A thi tawhte no chu a khupin an dah vek a, a la damte chuan anmahni hming chuanna no ṭheuhah cognac thli chhuakin an thian kal tate sun nan an in ta thin a ni.

    Kum 2013 April ni 18 khan Japan run tura an inzirna hmun Eglin Air Force Base kiang lawka Fort Walton Beach-ah chuan inhmuhkhawmna hnuhnung ber an hmang a, a la dam zingah Robert Hite chu a tel thei lo hlauh.

    ‘Thian kal tate thlahna hnuhnung ber’ (final toast to the fallen comrades) chu National Museum of United States Air Force, Wright –Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio-ah 2013 November ni 9 khan B-25 bomber ‘flyover’ te nen hman a ni ta a. Hetah hian ‘raider’ la dam chhun pali zinga pathum, Richard Cole, Edward Saylor leh David Thatcher te an tel a ni. An inthlahna zu um leh no-te hi he museum-ah hian vawn that a ni ta bawk.

    An hotupa James H. Doolittle kha indo zawh hnuah pawh dinhmun pawimawh tak tak chelhin ram tan a thawh hlawk hle a, hna atanga a chawlh hnu daih kum 1985 khan General puitling (four star General) nihna an hlan a. American civil mi chawimawina sang ber Medal of Freedom pek a ni bawk a, Medal of Honor leh Medal of Freedom dawng kawp hmasa ber a ni. Kum 96 mi niin kum 1993 khan a thi a, US sipai thlanmual, Arlington Memorial Cemetery-ah phum a ni.

    Khami ral donaa pilot puitling zingah khan Col. Bill Bower chu a damrei ber niin 2011 khan kum 93 mi niin a thi a. ‘Raiders’ inhmuh khawm hnuhnun ber hnuah hian mi pathum thi leh tawhin heng thi tate zinga dam rei ber David Thatcher chu kumin 2016 June ni 22 khan a thi a, tunah hian Colonel Richard E. Cole, Japan an beih tuma Doolittle-a co pilot, kum 100-a upa chiah hi a dam chhun a ni ta.

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