TUIALHTHEI LEH KHAWVEL

Iraq, Iran, Kuwait leh Saudi Arabia hnuaia tuialhthei thlit fim loh awm khu khawvel ram dang zawng zawnga awm belh khawm ai pawhin a tam zawk an ti a. Tui hi degree zaah a soa, kan khulh leh pûp țhin Zu (Ethanol) erawh hi chu degree 78 velah a so thung. Chuti a nih chuan tui leh zu inpawlh hi so lo deuhin (78 degree) vela sain chhuang ta char char ila zu hlang chu kan la hrang (a hu) vek thei dawn a ni.

Chutiang bawk chuan khi’ng ram palite tuialhthei thlit fim loh neih khi a sat dan inang lo nuaiha chhuan sat (fractional distillation) chuan thil țangkai tak takah a chhuak thluah a, kan hriat lar zingah chauh pawh Naptha, Gasoline, Petrol, Diesel, Lubricating oil leh Heavy Gas Oil an tihte an ni nuk mai. He’ngho tel lo hian khawvel hi darkar khat pawh a kal thei lo ang. A pawimawhzia chu ram hausa 36 inzawm khawmna Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) te chuan khawvel tuialhthei hmun thuma țhena hmun hnih vel an hmang rala ngaih a ni.

He tuialhthei kan tih mai leh a kaihhnawih (Oil leh gas) hi vawiin khawvelah hian hnathawhna chi hrang hrang zaa sawmruk chuangah hman a ni mek a, nitin khawsakna mai ni lo ram ropui ber berte’n indona lam thlengin tank, thlawhna leh missile, war ship leh a dangah hmangin U.S phei khu chuan a mamawhna a sang zual khawp a; an Department of Defense khuan US sawrkar energy hman zaa sawmriat vel khu a pawt peng a ni awm e. U.S. bakah hian Japan, member 28 awmna European Union leh ram hnuaihnung zawk an tih mai Third World ram South Korea, Brazil, Mexico leh India thlenga hmangin; India phei hi chuan Diesel, Petrol, Khawnvartui leh a dangte hi ni khatah barrel maktaduai li chuang a khuchhuah ral vut vut reng mai a ni.

Kum 1900 chhoa lirthei chi hrang hrang siam chhuah a nih ațang khan tuialhthei hlutna hi a nasa zual a, a pawimawh țan tak takna erawh kum 1914-a chhuak indopui pakhatna ațang khan a ni. Lungalhthei (coal) chhawm nunga lawng tikal vut vut țhin British navy-te chuan lung ațang tuialhtheiah țuanin hetihlaia British Secretary of Navy, prime minister ni zui ta pu Winston Churchill-a chak fona chhan pawh kha oil hman hmasak rah hi a ni. Indo a tawp a, Allies-ho an chak chiah pawh khan British foreign secretary Lord Curzon (India lama shri Cursed-on an tih kha) chuan, “Hnehna kawng zawhin Allies-te chu oil chungah an lang delh delh mai a ni.” a ti nghe nghe.

Indona a tawp chuan chutihlaia tuialhthei ngah ram nia hriat Texas leh Caribbean lam ramte chu a khurpui lian zawk, Middle East-a hmuhchhuah a nih tak avangin enge emaw chen chu rauhsan an ni a. Thlarau lam lo pawha harhna chang hmasa fo France, Britain leh U.S-te chuan neitu nih an inchuh titih nghal bawk a. Britain hian a awp sa Iran tuialhthei khurte chu kum 1901 khan ngaihhnathiamna hmangin a chhawm zui a, U.S zuk birh ve tur chu a rem dan dana nek per tumin theihtawp a chhuah zui a. A hauh na bawk a ni ang, chutihlaia U.S Standard Oil of New Jersey president chuan, “Indonaah khan German kha chak ta zawk se, chu ai pawh chuan a chimawm zawk ang.” a ti hial.

Lungalhthei khura luh ve tumin U.S chuan a zuk birh ve ta ngar ngar a, indopui pahnihna chhuaka a tawp leh meuh chuan Europe a chau chhia a, Germany pawh a tlusawp bawk a. Indona avanga thathum zo France leh Great Britain lah lei chhak hluiin an bawk ngawih ngawih ringawt tawh mai nen, U.S vanneihna a ințan ve dawn ta a ni.

Tichuan zawi zawiin, kum 1940 chhoah khan Middle East-a U.S tuialhthei khur chan chu zaa sawm vel a ni chho ta a, Iran leh Iraq-ah he’ng ram huamhap tak pahnihte hi mawi taka dah nil-in kum 1950 a nih chuan khûr zaa sawmnga a chang fel der tawh! (Iran Prime Minister Mohammad Mossadeq-a’n British sawrkar control Anglo-Iranian Oil Company (AIOC)-te kum 1951-a a nationalize khan America CIA-te chuan fing kherek taka Mossadeq-a hi paih thlain “The Shah” an tih foa kha an laltir a, ani hi U.S tan chuan milem pawh chet theih ang chauh niin Shah hunlai ațang hian Iran lungalhthei khûrte chu British kutah a lut leh tawh ngai lo (Shah khawngaihthlak chanchin leh puithiam Khomeini-a’n vawiin Iran a din chhuahpui dante hi ziah ka tum zing tawh viau!)

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U.S chuan Europe tundin lehna, vawiina Marshall Plan an tih têiveta hi kalpuiin chumi hmang chuan Europe-a energy market zawng zawng tihtheih a chang zui a, Marshall Plan sum tluklehdingawn sawmpathum vel atanga 2% chuang chu tuialhthei chawkluh nan hmang zuiin Europe-a a thlitfimna hmun zawng zawng deuhthaw a hup bawk a. Indona a tawp a, Japan leh industrial ram dang dang rawn țhang chho leh a hnuaihnung zawkte changkan ve tuma rawn ințuațam vel nen; vawiina ram ropui ber a nih theih nan hian a mak a mak nasain tuialhthei ațang chuan sum a hui lut ta hiau hiau ringawt mai a ni. Khawvel economy a awp chho lo thei ta loa, he’ng hunlaia Oil Corporation hrawl ber ber pasarih “Seven Sisters” an tih zinga pali Gulf Oil , Standard Oil Co. of California (Chevron ni zui ta), Standard Oil Co. of New Jersey (ExxonMobil ni zui ta) leh Standard Oil Co. of New York (Mobil) te chu U.S sawrkar ta vek an ni!

He kum 1960 chhoa U.S-in khawvel tuialhthei a thuhnuai vekna dana hi “The Nixon Doctrine” tia koh niin a policy apply-pui duhtu tur thiam takin a thlang a, Middle East-a oil chunga lang an tih hial Saudi Arabia, Iran, leh chu’ng “check” nana kum 1948-a din (nia sawi!) Israel nen, ram pathumte chuan U.S hausakna kawngah ball hran țheuh an khalh a ni ber. Kum 1920 chhoa mahni seh seh mual hranah tia lal hran hran la nei thluah Saudi ram ngei ngei pawh hi U.S leh a Oil Company-te din a nihna lai a awm a. Kum 1932-a Ibn Saud-a leh a chipuite’n lal dangte hneha an hming chawia ram pumkhat, “Saudi Arabia”-a an din hnu lawk khan Texaco and Standard Oil of California chuan khurpui chang nghalin Arab ho in an din chawpchilh ve ARAMCO (Arab American Oil Company) nen chuan an thawk dun nghal a, U.S “bawlnain” hei hi kum sawmhnih chuang chu khawvela oil producer lian ber a ni zui.

Chutihlai Saudi Arabia chuan sawrkar tia sawi tur a la nei mumal loa, minister, sipai, mithiam leh budget emaw a la nei hek lo. Vawiina khawvel tuialhthei reserve 25% neitu Saudi hi United States leh a kid ARAMCO-te din a nih ber chu! Chu ram hual veltu Mulsim ram, kum 1950-60 chhoa rawn inham puar ve țan Egypt, Syria leh Iraq (Muslim peng hnih Sunni leh Shia politics la tel loin) te veng tur chuan dollar tluklehdingawn tela a țanpui ûl ul mai Israel chu a meng kar mai bawk si!

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Kar loah Saudi Arabia ram hlutna chu a pung ta hluai a, Israel erawh helai ram bunga thil inlumlet bihthlatu a ni ber. A hna ber chu U.S ep theitu tur check leh a bikin kum 1950-60 chhoa Arab ram rawn tho chhuak ve tan Egypt, Syria leh Iraq-te ding chhuak tur lo nem thut a ni ber a, Mediterranean-ah Israel, Persian Gulf lamah Iran; U.S kalkawng sialtute pahnih bakah sawi tak Saudi Arabia nen, Arab ram dang Syria, Libya, Lebanon leh Iraq ten Persian Gulf-a lungalhthei khur an chuh ve tur chu an check ta char char mai a ni.

A bikin Iran hi U.S. tana “Policeman of the Gulf” tih a ni thin a, a ram a lianin mihring an tam si a; Saudi neih loh thil tam tak a lo nei hmasa nen, an milem pawhchet theih lal Shah-a chuan a tuialhthei hralhna chuan sipai chak tak a din zui a, Air Force phei chu khawvela a nei turu berte zinga mi a ni hman. Iran pawimawhzia hriain kum 1970 leh 1978 inkar khan U.S. chuan ralthuam dollar tluklehdingawn 20 chuang man a thawn lut a. A tam tham bawk a ni ang, U.S. Representative pakhay Gerry Stud-a phei chuan, “Khawvel chanchinah, remna leh muanna awm lai ni sia sipai thuam chakna nasa ber.” a ti thlawt a ni. Amah “The Shah-a” lah chu a niangnai lo angreng khawp a, kum 1974 khan, “Iran venna tel lo chuan Gulf-a Arab ramte hi an boral zo ang.” a la ti dum dum mai!

Kum 1960 a lo nih chuan Baghdad-ah, Petrol thawn chhuak ram infinkhawm Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) a lo piang a, a tirah chuan Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia leh Venezuela te telin Qatar, Indonesia, Libya, UAE, Algeria leh Nigeria te’n an zawm ve leh a. An tum bulpui ber chu Company liante hnen atanga share tam zawk hauh ve theih dan kawng zawn a nih laiin rei lo teah chuan supply leh a oil man thleng chuan thunun theia inhriatna an nei ta a. Inrawn khawm tha lehin OPEC member ramte chuan tuialhthei thawnchhuah tur zat quota an inbituk ta theuh a, chu chu an kalpui reng thei a nih chuan tuilahthei man an thunun ngei dawn tih an inhria. Chutiang chuan khawvel tuialhthei thawn chhuah 40% leh thawn chhuah tur awm 50% vel chu an hup ta vek mai a, khawvel pum tuialhthei supply (lut leh chhuak) chu an kutah a awm a ni ta ber. Quota mumal bituk vek an nih avangin eng emaw thulh, indona tenau chhuak thutah te an che thuai thei a, an hlu hlerh hlerh viau a ni.

Kum 1973-a Israel-in Egypt leh Syria a beih duh loh entir nana OPEC-in tuialhthei thawn chhuah an khap khan an pawimawhna hi a lang chiang tak tak tan a, Egypt leh Syria beitu Israel mai ni loin an chak zui theih nana Israel ralthuam pe chhawngtu U.S thlengin an hrek ngam ta mai a. He hun rei lo te chhung hian tuialhthei man chu dollar 4 atang 12 te a kai hman a, a man lam ai mah chuan OPEC Power chuan ngaihven a hlawh zui lo thei ta lo bawk.

Chu OPEC tuilahthei thunun chuan U.S chu a timangang ta thuai a, kum 1979-a Iranian Revolution hmingthang (a ngaihnawm asin hei hi) chhuakin an milem pawhchet theih Shah paih thlak a ni zui nen, U.S chan chu a hniam chak salh salh hle mai a. “Policeman of the Gulf” nuai bo a ni a, U.S haw ber maitu Islam behchhan sawrkar, puithiam Khomeini-a hoin tundin a ni ta a; hei hi ,mi tam tak chuan Vietnam War-a a chak loh ai khan a pawi zawk an ti thlawt! Chu buaina belhchhah tur chuan kum 1979 vek hian USSR chuan Afghanistan a run thut mai a, U.S awm a nuam thei lo. Saudi Arabia lam pawh a nghawr dat a, September thla chuan helna chhuakin Saudi chhungkaw rorelna eptute chuan Islam sakhaw hmun thianghlim ber, Mecca-a Grand Mosque chu hriam chelekin an la zui bawk a.

Chu’ng buaina thlir ran chuan U.S chuan kum 1980 khan Israel a puihna chu a letin a tipung leh ta a, tuialhthei man pawh a let thum (barrel khat dollar 12 atang 35-ah) a sang chho nghal zawt bawk a. U.S chuan Saudi Arabia leh Gulf ramah, Iran eptu tur ram te zawk thawhpui dan ngaihtuahin tanpuina nasa taka thawn lut zui a, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar leh United Arab Emirates ramte tangho pawl, Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) dintir thuai tumin hma a la leh ta vut vut mai a ni. Shah awm tawh lo nen kum 1980 khan president Jimmy Carter-a chuan Carter Doctrine puangin helai rama inrawlh zui dan tur a duang ta a, Rapid Deployment Force (RDF) dinin, “Pawn lam atanga Persian Gulf luah tumtu chuan U.S sahuat a tawk anga ngaih a ni ang.” a ti ta ngawt mai a ni.

A dinhmun pangngai luah let lehna remchang a melh ran ran lai chuan kum 1980 khan Iran leh Iraq chu an indo ta hluai mai a, U.S chuan Iran awp leh theihna leh Gulf ramte thawhpuina tur chance hmuin sipai a thawn lut ta ruih ruih mai a. Sipai hmun leh command centre a bun zung zung a, Bahrain-ah a indo lawng rual inchhekna hmunpui a hawng bawk a. Kum 1983 a nih meuh chuan a RDF-te chu Central Command (CENTCOM) tia inzar pharhin lawnglian 17 leh sipai 40,000 vel a chhek zui a, he’ng hmunte hi vawiin thleng hian an la pawimawh hlawm hle nghe nghe.

Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) puihna leh Kuwait leh Saudi Arabia-te bill thachakna hmangin Saddam Hussein-a chuan Iran sipaite chu an um ta duai duai mai a, tun hma lawka Iraq-in chemical/biological weapon a nei tia an sawi chamchi pawh kha he’ng hunlaia intan hi niin U.S hian a hriatpui vek nia sawi a ni. U.S. puihnain Iran chu a tlawm ta a, Iraq chuan chanvo tha a chang chho dawn nia a lan laiin helai tualchhung politics leh sakhaw kaihhnawih neuh neuh awm reng nen, kum 1990 chuan Saddam-a chuan Kuwait a run ve leh ta phut mai a. Mahni hmasial ta reng reng, Iran laka a thawhpui hlimhlawt Iraq lakah U.S chu a tuan ve leh ta a, a saptawng taka “One-sided invasion” an tih mai, bomb hmangin U.S chuan Iraq mi 200,000 chuang a that zui ta a ni.

Kum 1992 chhoah chuan boruak a ziaawm tan a, Iran a aikhirh a, Iraq lah a chhu chhe vek bawk a; economic sanction siam zuiin hemi hnu kum sawm chhung hian Iraq naupang maktaduai chanve chu ei chhiat leh natna hrang hrang avangin an thi zui nghe nghe. Chuti chungin Iran leh Iraq-ah chuan U.S ngaithei lo an lal zui ve ve a, a paih thlak dan a ngaihtuah leh a ngai ta a. Tuialhthei man tlahniam avangin Saudi Arabia lah a buai chho ve mek bawk a, Iraq beih nana Saudi-a inkulh U.S sipaite leh chutihlai sawrkar lakah chuan mipui an lawm lo telh telh bawk nen; Gulf ram chu a bengdai viaua ngaih theih a nih laiin a teuh dawn si lo!

Inbenbel that leh tumin U.S chuan thawhpui thar a zawng tha leh a, thiam takin Israel leh Turkey chu a inkawmngeihtir ta a; thawhhona thuthlung ziakin an sipai phawkphawhraw pui puite chuan nunchan an zir zui nghal thut thut mai bawk a. Chutiang chuan kum 1990 chhoah khan Turkey chu Israel leh Egypt dawtah, U.S sipai thuam chhawr nasa ber a ni a, kum khatah dollar maktaduai 700 te a dawng ul ul mai. Turkey-a Incirlik air base chu changtlung zawka thuam a ni a, Kurdish hnam tlemte chhan nan tia chhuanlama Iraq bomb nan U.S. F-16 rualte chu an bawk khup mai thin.

Tuialhthei lak luhna tihzau chu U.S motto a ni lo thei ta lo a, Persian Gulf piah lamah Africa, North Sea atanga Canada thlengin a dawr zui ta a. Hei hi Gulf lama a duhkhawp loh thulhah tih chu thu hran, OPEC ramte chhut chhiatna tura ruahmanna pakhat a ni. Oil boycott lo awm ve sek bawk nen OPEC chu a chau sawt hle mai a, kum 1970-a khawvel tuialhthei 50% pe chhuak thin khan 1990 chhoah chuan 31% vel chiah an pe chhuak thei ta reng a; theihpalingkawha an tan hnuin kum 2010 hma lam khan 40% velah an inhlang leh hram a ni awm e. Chuti chungin U.S chuan ram dang a melh lui zel a, hman kum lawka Tunisia, Sudan, Drogba-te ram Republic of Cote d’Ivoire leh Boko Haram-ho thlengin, Africa khawmual buai karah hian Angola, Chad leh Sudan lamahte tuialhthei khur a melh leh ngur tawh a, Mexico leh Canada lama khurpuite’n OPEC chu an tichhe nasa hle bawk.

Cold War-a a elpui Soviet Union, kum 1991-a a kehchhiat chiah khan (Union ber a kehchhiat tawh hi chuan a ngaihna a awm tawh lo tlangpui) Russia leh Kazakhstan inrina hnuai vela tuipui (dil a ni mah zawk awm e) Caspian Sea hnuaia kum za tam lo inchap tawh tuialhthei, a tam em avanga “The Caspian’s Black Gold” an tih mai chuan Persian Gulf lam chhawkna tha tak tur a ni nen, U.S leh khawthlang ramte lung a len leh ta thuai a. Helai tuipui hnuai leh a chhehvelah hian tuialhthei barrel tluklehdingawn 70 vel awma hriat niin (chhuttu thenkhat chuan tluklehdingawn 200 a kaiin an ring bawk) American Petroleum Institute chuan he hmun hi, “Middle East dawta hausakna ngah ber” tiin an han tawngpawng koh ve leh ngawt bawk a.

Chutiang zat awm khura luh tum chuan Oil Company hrawl ber ber Chevron, Texaco, Exxon-Mobil leh Unocal tih angrengin hma an la leh ta chur chur a, tun hnaia palian muhil tho tan China bakah Japan pawhin ring an rawlh thuk hle bawk. Caspian tuialhthei lak chhuah a nih huna khel loa a kalkawng ni tur Iran leh Russia an induh nghal ngulh bawk a, buaina awm zui erawh Caspian tuipui hual veltu ram panga te’n insem dan tur an tichiang lawk thei lo kha a ni. Chu aia la manganthlak leh chu khawi ramah pawh thawn chhuak dawn se pipe line thui tak tak zam a ngai dawn a; chu chuan ram dang eng emaw zah a paltlang a ngai bawk si. Pipe line hlui ringin eng emaw zah chu Iran leh Russia-ah a kal tlang thei chungin U.S hian anni pahnih hi hel hram a tum a, Mediterranean lama Turkey Ceyhan lawngchawlhna lamah a hlet neih a rilruk thung.

Chutiang ruahmanna a kalpui mek lai chuan kum 2001 khan WTC beih a ni ta thut mai a, Afghanistan-a Taliban ho buaipui an ngai zui pheng nen; duh angin hma a la chak thei ta lo a. Chuti chungin tunah hi chuan Caspian Sea kamah a inbun ut tawh a, Azerbaijan nen thawhhona ziakin Georgia bakah Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan leh Turkmenistan-ahte sipai a chhek zui a, kum 2002 atang khan Baku-Ceyhan pipeline hi official taka siam tanin hei hi tun hnaia a chung lawk Crimea inchuha Ukraine leh Russia buaina nen, helai bial tiralmuang lotu tak pawh hi a ni chho ta a ni.

Nikum hmasa lam lawk khan OPEC hian tihdan thar an duang a, kum khata tuialhthei thawn chhuah theih zatah an member ram rethei bikte hriatthiamna thui tak neiin hei hian pawl dinhmun pawh nasa takin a titha leh a, (Russia an tlawn chho nen). Middle East lamah Iran leh Russia an inkawmngeih chho bawk a, ISIS thawm reh ta nen; an dinhmun a tha rih viau a ni awm e.

Author: Kima Sailo

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